Hydro Power Plant
Minio Hydro Power Plant (MHP)
Minio Hydro Power Plant (MHP), is a generator of electricity using small-scale power water as a driving force such as, channel irrigation, river or waterfall nature by utilizing high waterfall (head) and the amount of discharge water. Mini-hydro is a term that consists of micro which means small and hydro means water.
Technically, micro hydro has three main components: water, turbine and generator. Micro hydro gets energy from the flow of water that has a certain height difference. Basically, micro-hydro utilizing the potential energy of falling water. The higher the falling water, the greater the potential energy of water that can be converted into electricity. Besides the factor of geography, high water fall-out can also be obtained by stemming the flow of water so that the water level is high. Air flowed through a pipe into the home plant growing, which generally was built at the edge of the river to drive turbines or micro water wheel.
The mechanical energy derived from the rotation axis of the turbine is converted into electrical energy by a generator. Micro hydro can utilize the water level is not too large, for example, with a height of 2.5 meters of water 400 watts of electricity can be generated . The relatively small amount of energy produced compared to micro hydropower large scale, has implications for the relatively simple equipment as well as the small area needed to installation and operation of micro-hydro. It is one of the advantages of micro-hydro, which does not cause environmental damage.
Differences between Hydroelectric Power (hydropower) with micro mainly on the amount of power generated, under a 200 KW hydropower classified as micro-hydro. Thus, micro hydro generator system suitable for reaching network availability of electrical energy in remote regions and rural areas. Some of the advantages contained in the micro hydro power plants are as follows:
Compared with other types of power plants, the micro-hydro power plant is quite cheap because: It uses natural energy. Has a simple construction and can be operated in remote areas with a population of local skilled workers with little training. Does not cause pollution. Can be combined with other programs such as irrigation and fisheries Can encourage people to be able to preserve the forests so that water availability is assured.
Some components used for micro hydro power plant both major components and building support among others: Dam / Dam Diversion (intake). Diversion dam used to divert water through an opening in the side of the river into a settling basin. Sand-trap is used to remove particles of sand from the water. The function of the settling basin is very important for protecting subsequent components of the impact of sand. Bearer channels (headrace). Carrier channels follow the contours of the hill to keep the elevation of the water delivered. Bak tranquilizers (Forebay).
Tranquilizers tub at the end of the carrier channel that serves to prevents water turbulence before they are deployed through the pipe rapidly Pipe Pesat (Penstock). Penstock connected at a lower elevation to a wheel of water, known as a turbine . Turbine:The turbine is used to convert water flow energy into mechanical rotation energy. Suction pipes, (draft tube). Suction pipe serves to suck water, restore the flow pressure is still high pressure into the atmosphere . Generator . The generator is used to generate electricity from mechanical rotation. Control panel. The control panel serves to stabilize the voltage. Diversion Expenses (Ballast load). Diversion load serves as a secondary load (dummy) when the load consumers has decreased. This load switcher performance is regulated by the control panel.